(Student’s Research 1988 – 1997)
Becvar, Dorothy & Raphael, J. “Storytelling and Family Therapy.” The American Journal of Family Therapy 21, no. 2 (1993): 145-60.
This article examines four aspects of storytelling as they relate to various therapeutic models. The author explores the application via the approaches used by such individuals as Rollo May, Gregory Bateson, Mary Catherine Bateson, Robert Coles and Milton Erickson.
Berger, David. “Developing the Story in Psychotherapy.” American Journal of Psychotherapy 43, no. 2 (1989): 248-59.
Author writes from a psychoanalytic perspective and discusses how approaching the patient’s narrative is a means of empathizing.
Borden, William. “Narrative Perspectives in Psychosocial Intervention Following Adverse Life Events.” Social Work 37, no. 2 (1992): 135-41.
Borden outlines three types of narrative constructs, progressive, stabile and regressive. Using the outlined model, Borden demonstrates through theoretical discussion and case study, the process of short term reconstructive therapy to 1) promote integration of traumatic experience, 2) identify sources of strength and promote self esteem, 3) experience a continuity of life events, 4) increase life satisfaction and 5) increase social functioning
Brandell, J. R. “Storytelling in Child Psychotherapy.” In Innovative Interventions in Child and Adolescent Therapy, ed. C.E. Scheafer, 33 . New York: Wiley & Sons, 1988.
In this chapter, Brandell provides a brief literature review of storytelling in normal childhood development. He compares and contrasts Gardner’s MST with Krittzberg’s Structured Game Method of Child Analytic Therapy. He provides case examples to help the reader to grasp the fundamental of Gardner’s technique. He gives examples of story drawings using Winnicott’s squiggle technique. He documents the existing research on the therapeutic use of children’s stories.
Briggs, J. “Traveling Indirect Routes to Enjoy the Scenery: Employing the Metaphor in Family Therapy.” Journal of Family Therapy 3, no. 2 (1992): 39-51.
This article offers a concise and expansive description of a metaphor and its value as a tool to subtle to present information to a client in an indirect, non-threatening manner. The author describes metaphors and explains three types of interventions. Case examples and metaphorical stories illustrate each application.
Cattanach, Ann. Play Therapy with Abused Children. Great Britain: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1992.
Narration is demonstrated as an integral aspect of play therapy. Chapter four is of specific interest, especially the discussions related to the monster that lies in the middle of the dramatic play and storytelling process. Explores the therapeutic benefits of working through the role of the abuser as well as abused through the use of the story format.
Correa, Julio and Martha Weber. “Storytelling in Families with Children: A Therapeutic Approach to Learning Problems.” Contemporary Family Therapy 13, no. 1 (1991): 33-59.
The premise of the article is that when a learning problem or regression occurs in a child, his or her imaginary language is enhanced. From this idea the authors believe that storytelling in family therapy becomes a useful way of treating learning problems. The authors explore this through offering marvelous stories pertaining to issues in the family and having the family dramatize the story.
Costantino, Guiseppe, et all. “Storytelling Through Pictures: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Hispanic Children and Adolescents.” Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 21, no. 1 (1994): 13-20.
A study of Hispanic youths in relation to the therapeutic outcomes of their responsiveness to the utilization of folk and fairy tales as a vehicle for modeling positive and adaptive attitudes, values and behaviors. Participants engaged in therapeutic role-playing of the characters in the stories. This practice was found to reduce anxiety symptoms, increase self-esteem, social judgement and ethnic identity.
Darou. W. “An Intervention with an Adolescent Incest/Abuser.” Canadian Journal of Counseling 26, no. 3 (1992): 152-6.
Author describes an intervention with a 14-year-old boy who had been a victim of incest as a young child. The author utilized a combination of Gardner’s MST and Oaklander’s creative use of fantasy in one session with the boy. The author describes how this technique is useful in its respect for the defenses of denial and repression by staying in metaphorical terms.
Davies, Evan. “Reframing, Metaphors, Myths, and Fairy Tales.” Journal of Family Therapy 10 (1988): 83-92.
The author discusses the use of myths and fairy tales as a means of reframing in the therapeutic context. Included is brief study using a fairy tales, “Sleeping Beauty” as a metaphor for change with an anorexic client.
Davis, Nancy. Once Upon a Time: Therapeutic Stories. Maryland: Psychological Associates of Oxon Hill, 1990.
This resource book is over 500 pages and includes 91 stories written for use in the therapeutic process. The stories are written by the author and her colleagues and are complied into categories of their therapeutic usefulness. The focus seems to be on the abused child. The introduction dissects several stories to explain how the symbolism is used. It also includes suggestions for creating therapeutic stories.
Dieckmann, H. Twice – Told Tales: The Psychological Use of Fairy Tales. Willamette, IL.: Chrion Publications, 1986.
This book is the revised and updated edition of the out of print text, Marchen und Traume als Helfer des Menschen. The book contains a foreword by Bruno Bettleheim. In the first six chapters, the author covers the symbolic language of fairy tales, cruelty in fairy tales and the fairy tale as a source in the process of emotional development. Two chapters focus on dreams, fantasies and fairy tale motifs. One chapter argues whether or not fairy tales are just for children.
Divinyi, Joyce. “Storytelling: An Enjoyable and Effective Therapeutic Tool.” Contemporary Family Therapy 17, no. 1 (1995): 27-37.
Describes and outlines various storytelling techniques for use with adolescents when the therapeutic relationships meets with client resistance, as is often common with this particular population. It provides the means to circumvent resistance and present new concepts for healthy behavior.
Early, Barbara P. “The Healing Magic of Myth: Allegorical Tales and the Treatment of Children of Divorce.” Child and Adolescent Social Work 10 (April 1993): 97-.
Article affirms the use of allegorical tales to “avoid undue intrusion” and to “open the defensive door” to facilitate healing. Describes how fairytales, allegory, and myth offer connections that enable children to express conflict at a symbolic level. Describes stages in use of ‘bibliotherapy’ and MST.
Fazio, L.S. “Tell Me a Story: The Therapeutic Metaphor in the Practice of Pediatric Occupational Therapy.” The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 46 (1992): 112-9.
This article explains how storytelling can be used in occupational therapy with children. It is used with metaphorical forms, expressions and guided imagery. The article gives the uses of the metaphor in therapy and explains the structure of a metaphor. The use of storytelling is related to the purpose of occupational therapy.
Fine, Marshall. “Family Therapy Training: Hypothesizing and Story Telling.” Journal of Family Therapy 3, no. 4 (1991): 61-79.
This article provides useful information for the beginning counselor. He discusses how the process of hypothesizing can be beneficial in developing a series of questions for the therapy session. The use of stories involves aspects of the therapist’s personal experience.
Focht, L. & Beardslee, W. “Speech After a Long Silence.” Family Process 35 (1996): 407-21.
This article reviews a process of storytelling where the affective disorder is first given a schematic base or framework by which to structure the story’s content, is contained and then the life story is told. This method suggest that resiliency is promoted by this form of therapy because it increases family cohesion as each member adds their memories and personal perceptions of the experience to the story.
Fox, R. “What Is Meta for?” Clinical Social Work Journal 17, no. 3 (1989): 233-44.
Words can be too limiting to grasp the depths of our experiences. Metaphors help to broaden the meaning of words. The metaphor is an important therapeutic vehicle as it can develop rapport, foster understanding, access unconscious material and aid memory retrieval. Case studies provided. Author discusses three sources for metaphors. Guidelines are provided to nurture and develop metaphors.
Freeman, Mark. “Therapeutic Use of Storytelling for Older Children Who Are Critically Ill.” Children’s Health Care 20, no. 4 (Fall, 1991): 208-15.
Easy to read, candid case examples that show how children facing medical challenges can benefit from the storytelling relationship. Discusses need to carefully chose story to fit child’s stage of development and not to be literally prescriptive.
Gersie, Alma. Reflections on Therapeutic Storymaking: The Uses of Stories in Groups. London: Kingsley, 1997.
This book gives an explicit description of the author’s pioneering work with stories and storymaking in mental health groups. The writer shows how people’s fantasy tales can reflect hidden feelings. With clinical examples she illustrates ways in which storymaking has helped people to change behavior and move out from previously ‘stuck’ attitudes.
Harker, Tim. “Therapy with Male Sexual Abuse Survivor.” In Narrative Therapy in Practice, The Archaeology of Hope, 193-214. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997.
Harker writes about the relationship between dominant masculine belief systems and male sexual abuse. He shows how narrative metaphors can be used to help clients escape from this childhood trauma. Harker offers numerous examples to illustrate how narrative questioning can be used with clients. He also discusses deconstruction and construction theory.
Hensel, MD, William & Rasco, Theresa. “Storytelling As a Method for Teaching Values and Attitudes.” Academic Medicine 67 (1992): 500-4.
Addresses support for humanizing medical education through use of mentor’s stories related to the practice of medicine. Emphasizes the need for teaching stories to relate to the immediate situation and the import of teaching stories to facilitate examination of values and attitudes.
Herman, L. “Good Enough Fairy Tales for Resolving Sexual Abuse Trauma.” the arts in psychotherapy 24, no. 5 (1997): 439-44.
The author reviews the benefits of using stories and metaphor with children who have been victims of sexual abuse. She provides a case example, identifying different approaches to take to address specific effects of sexual abuse. She begins by using drama and then incorporates the use of fairy tale into the dramatic play. This is a short article, but it provides the theoretical basis for using storytelling and fairy tales with sexually abused children.
Howard, George. “Culture Tales: A Narrative Approach to Thinking Cross-Cultural Psychology and Psychotherapy.” American Psychologist 46, no. 3 (1991): 187-97.
Gives background on constructivist and objectivist views in scientific inquiry. Explores scientific discovery and ways of knowing as modes of storytelling. Discusses psychology, psychotherapy as the exploration and repair of life story lines. Investigates major themes for both therapist and client. Explores implications of seeing all storylines as valid, therefore increasing opportunities for multicultural work in the human sciences.
Kirmayer, Laurence. “The Body’s Insistence on Meaning: Metaphor As Presentation and Representation in Illness Experience.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 6, no. 4 (1992): 323-46.
Scholarly article on metacommunication and somatics. Discusses metaphors that ‘are produced in the perception of resemblance and in symbolic play before they are recognized as anomalous parts of speech and long before they can be verbally explained.’
Klienbard, David. “As I Lay Dying: Literary Imagination, the Child’s Mind and Mental Illness.” Southern Review 22 (Winter, 1988): 51-68.
The article explores the complex relationship between illness and gifts of imagination, insight and language in the work of “As I Lay Dying” by Wm. Faulkner. The article affirms the capacity of story to contain, hold at a distance or define fantasy and experience. How it all can be lived through the imagination as opposed to concrete reality, and yet, felt to be healing.
Kottman, T and K Stiles. “The Mutual Storytelling Technique: An Alderian Application in Child Therapy.” Individual Psychology 46 (1990): 148-55.
This article describes an Adlerian approach to Gardner’s MST. It tells how stories told by children can metaphorically represent four particular goals: attention, power, revenge and inadequacy. Examples of how children may perceive these goals are given. The article provides a good overview of Gardner’s technique with Alderian approach.
Lankton, C.A & Lankton, S.T. Tales of Enchantment: Goal-Oriented Metaphors for Adults and Children in Therapy. N.Y.: Brunner/Mazel, Inc, 1989.
This book provides a board array of examples of metaphors for different therapeutic purposes. Actual redesigned stories that have been used in therapeutic settings are provided. The stories are categorized according to the particular goals for which they are structured. The goals are grouped by chapter and include changes in affect, behavior, self-image, role development, identity and family structure.
Larner, G. “Narrative Family Therapy.” Family Process 35 (1996): 423-40.
This article focuses on how to engage a young child in the therapeutic family process The focus is to engage the family after a child’s narrative play assessment. This approach includes the therapist taking a hermeneutic stance in therapy. An initial narrative assessment is given to the child and the child’s story unfolds in play. The child’s narrative is incorporated into the family narrative.
Lopata, Peg. “Let Me Tell You a Story: The Healing Power of Storytelling.” Adoptive Families 31, no. 1 (Jan/Feb 1998): 36-9.
Discusses the healing power of storytelling for young children. Stories as children’s weapons and armor to tackle life’s problems.
Low, Virgina. “Illness As Metaphor.” Literary Review 31 (Fall, 1987).
Short article on women writers and their illness as metaphor.
Lyness, Kevin and Volker Tomas. “Fitting a Square Peg in a Square Hole: Using Metaphor in Narrative Therapy.” Contemporary Family Therapy 17, no. 1 (1995): 127-42.
Family therapy is defined through a narrative model, as opposed to a logic-scientific therapy. Article describes the narrative therapeutic process. It borrows heavily from Milton Erickson and his concept of indirection.
Mair, Miller. “Telling Psychological Tales.” International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology 3 (1990): 121-35.
A tongue in cheek analysis of conventional psychological discourse. Criticizes conventional psychological theorists for removing the narrator from the discussion. Discusses the work of Kelly, sating that Kelly’s sense of self presence as narrator and participant was an essential element in his discourses on theory and practice. Mair suggest that we should not seek ways of proving truth within psychoanalytic work, but use story to seek ways of exploring the limits of our knowing and the frontiers of our future learning.
McKenzie, Joan et all. “Stories and Solutions in Psychotherapy with Adolescents.” Adolescence 30, no. 110 (1995): 401-10.
Presents a framework for cooperative, therapeutic work with adolescents, drawing on ideas of solution-oriented therapy and narrative approaches to counseling. This helps to elicit authentic responses from the client in a non-threatening context. It further creates cooperation and helps to circumvent any power struggles.
Miller, Carol and John Boe. “Tears Into Diamonds: Transformation of Child Psychic Trauma Through Sandplay and Storytelling.” The Arts in Psychotherapy 17 (1990): 247-57.
Overview of program used with children suffering from various psychic traumas in an inpatient treatment program. Using sandplay, the treatment team develop ‘cross modal’ matching of a story to affectively ‘attune’ to the child. Describes how sandplay and stories both use metaphors, and how metaphor is effective with children. Excellent case examples. Relates difference of cross modal matching with MST
Mueller, Edward and Elizabeth Tingley. “The Bears’ Picnic: Children’s Representations of Themselves and Their Families.” New Directions for Child Development 48 (1990): 47-65.
This article presents a study done with preschool age children using storytelling and fantasy to better understand their representation of their family and themselves. Through a technique of a doll play scenario called Bear’s Picnic the researchers gather information on self concept. This is a complex article discussing more about research and research methods than on practical therapeutic usage.
Newbern, Virgina. “The Value of Reminiscence As a Research Tool.” Journal of Gerontological Nursing (May 1992): 13-8.
Study of self care practices in the elderly, retrieved by the use of direct reminiscent storytelling. Reminiscent storytelling gives elderly the opportunity to play role of storyteller, image maker, to see their memories as valuable contribution to society and see their own lives as worthy.
Oaklander, V. Windows to Our Children. Moab, UT: Real People Press, 1978.
The book is an excellent resource for different, effective approaches to working with children. Oaklander takes a Gestalt approach that is simple and straightforward. Chapter five specifically deals with storytelling, puppets and poetry. She bases her work on the Mutual Storytelling Technique. She provides a book list and discusses the application of fairy tales in therapy with children.
Parry, Alan. “A Universe of Stories.” Family Process 30 (1991): 37-54.
Highlighted is the importance of a person telling her story to an attentive listener. By doing so, she finds her own voice and is empowered to validate her life. Freud’s view of story, as a modernist, is described. A narrative approach to psychotherapy challenges the modernist view.
Perry, A & Doan, R.E. Story Revision: Narrative Therapy in the Postmodern World. NY: Guilford, 1994.
The philosophical basis for narrative therapy is presented in this book as well as the idea of how to put those ideas into action. Each chapter furnishes the reader with examples of how to use the narrative approach as well as detailed guidelines for the therapist.
Romig, Charles & Gruenke, Carol. “The Use of Metaphor to Overcome Inmate Resistance to Mental Health Counseling.” Journal of Counseling and Development 69 (May/June 1991): 414-8.
Describes the use of metaphor to reduce resistance to counseling involuntary clients. Discusses types of resistance with inmate populations and method to bypass initial resistance by use of stories, anecdotes and metaphors. Defines how use of metaphor works to disrupt old thinking patterns and to reframe problems. Provides good descriptive examples.
Schnitzer, P. “Tales of the Absent Father: Applying the ‘Story’ Metaphor in Family Therapy.” Family Process 32 (1993): 441-58.
This article explores how stories about the absent father help to moderate the impact of his absence on the family. Additional discussion centers on four characteristics of metaphors that are helpful to the therapeutic process. The article concludes with suggestions regarding ways in which therapists can design interventions for family members coping with the loss of the father.
Seaburn, D. B et all. “The Transgenerational Development of Chronic Illness Meanings.” Family Systems Medicine 10 (1992): 385-93.
This article explains how families with a chronically ill member uses family and social cultures to give meaning to the experience of the illness. The article suggests that current work in storytelling, narrative and transgenerational models of family therapy can contribute to theories about the meaning attributed to chronic illness. One case study is provided.
Sedney, Mary Anne. “The Story of a Death: Therapeutic Considerations with Bereaved Families.” Citation: Journal of Marital & Family Therapy 20, no. 3 (1994): 287-96.
This article shows ways to advance the healing process through storytelling when a family is experiencing loss and grief. To be able to express their pain helps people to include the family members and reestablish relationships between each other.
Sedney, Mary Anne, John Baker and Esther Gross. “‘The Story’ of a Death: Therapeutic Considerations with Bereaved Families.” Journal of Marital & Family Therapy 20, no. 3 (1994): 287-96.
‘The Story’ is an on-going process of the therapist drawing out multiple stories that surround the account of a family member’s death.
Stevens-Guille, Elizabeth and Fredick Boersma. “Fairy Tales As a Trance Experience: Possible Therapeutic Uses.” American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 34, no. 4 (1992): 245-54.
Article’s basic premise is that hypnotic trance states and fairy tales are connected. Author relies on work of Milton Erickson as a precedent for using story with trance work.
Stiles, Kathy. “Mutual Storytelling: An Intervention for Depressed and Suicidal Children.” School Counselor 37, no. 5 (May 1990): 337-43.
Describes the use of mutual storytelling technique in treatment of children with suicidal behavior. Case study presented.
Stirtzinger, Ruth. “Storytelling: A Creative Therapeutic Technique.” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 28, no. 7 (1983): 561-5.
Provides a progressive case study of the MST with one child. Gives in depth examples of analysis using the technique to increase ego strength and adaptive functioning. Also explores the family dynamic as reflected in the child’s stories.
Strand, P. “Toward a Developmental Informed Narrative Therapy.” Family Process 36 (1997): 325-39.
This article takes into consideration how people construct meaning out of their experience through their developmental capacities. This has an effect upon the process of re-storying their lives. Narrative metaphor has become increasingly popular because it gives clients opportunities to move away from the problem dominated stories to ones that highlight new possibilities. There is a defocusing on pathology while new frameworks are constructed from a humanistic perspective.
Wanner, Susan. On With the Story: Adolescents Learning Through Narrative. Portsmouth, N.H.: Boyinton/Cook, 1994.
Wanner clearly demonstrates how and why narrative stories are extremely rich learning mediums for adolescents. She shows how it allows them to look back and make sense of their experiences. It also provides them with a voice in which they can project into the future and create outcomes or solutions. She give some examples of successful applications to use with students.
Wenckus, Eileen. “Storytelling: Using an Ancient Art to Work with Groups.” Journal of Psychosocial Nursing 32, no. 7 (1994): 30-2.
Discusses benefits of group storytelling within the psychiatric milieu. Addresses ability of storytelling to reduce client feelings of social isolation and lack of connection. Techniques introduced include outlining the story, questions to begin the story, and facilitating the creation of story.
Williams, J. “Using Story As Metaphor, Legacy and Therapy.” Contemporary Family Therapy 17, no. 1 (1995): 9-19.
This article describes historical, legacy, and therapeutic stories and how these metaphors can be used effectively in family therapy. The author advocates that humor becomes an integral part of stories. Therapeutic tools as reframing can assist the client to further discover the humor in their personal situation.
Wynne, E. “Storytelling in Therapy and Counseling.” Children Today (Mar/Apr 1987): 11-7.
Examines the use of storytelling as a therapeutic tool in psychotherapy and counseling of children. Use of storytelling in therapy in historical perspectives and in modern society; importance of therapeutic imagery. Provides applications for specific physical and emotional problems with examples.
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